Certificate in Food Safety Video – 9 – HACCP Level 2

Certificate in Food Safety Video - 9 - HACCP Level 2

module you should be able to identify how many organisms are required to cause a problem state my multiplication in food is not essential identify which bacteria is the most common cause of diarrhea in the UK and lastly know which bacteria will multiply significantly in a French food borne diseases enter our digestive system by what's known as the fecal-oral route in other words they've come from another humans or animals intestines via the feces and we've ingested our feces various types of food borne diseases exist let's look at the bacteria and viruses that cause those diseases the first one and we'll go into these in some depth compiler bhakta enteritis Escherichia coli zero one five seven norovirus Listeria typhoid paratyphoid hepatitis a bacillary dysentery brucellosis tuberculosis and parasites on the slide it gives you an example of how the foodborne disease or other bacteria or virus can enter the system and it shows you all sewage being pumped out into water supply and that water supply then being sprayed onto fruit you first of all compiler buck death compiler bhakta enteritis is really the inflammation or the disease affecting the small intestine enteritis literally means inflammation of the intestine so compiler back there is a bacterial compiler back to enter writers is the disease the incubation period for this bacteria is between 1 and 11 days typically 2 to 5 days duration of the illness between 1 and 7 days symptoms include colicky abdominal pain diarrhea often blood-stained vomit in Israel usually accompanied by fever so it does usually start with flu-like symptoms and you get headaches or some nausea and this bacteria is the most common cause of diarrhea in the UK it composes mainly of compiler buck Dodge Journey 90% and compiled about the coli 10% the growth range is between 28 and 46 degrees Celsius other characteristics include is gram-negative reduced oxygen is required for growth there are no long term carriers it multiplies quickly between 37 and 43 degrees Celsius but not below 28 degrees Celsius easily killed by cookin and a very important thing here is around 500 organisms are required to cause illness when we looked at food poisoning bacteria we looked at millions caused an illness rather than hundreds sources of this bacteria include animals and birds cross-contamination from rule poultry is common it's common in the gut of poultry undercooked poultry or meat are the most likely food vehicles Magpies to milk infection is common therefore if you ever see milk bottles with the top specs don't drink them because it's possibly been affected by Campylobacter also raw milk and untreated natural water common food vehicles include raw or undercooked poultry and meat raw milk and contaminated water control factors include better hygiene and slaughterhouses heat treatment of milk thorough cooking 275 degrees Celsius better hygiene awareness of consumers pet hygiene avoiding cross-contamination from farm to fork of a farm table and lastly chlorination of water ecole night zero one five seven or is shirisha Pro line zero one five seven the incubation period for this bacteria is one to eight days to believe three to four days symptoms vary from watery diarrhea nausea abdominal pain to bright red bloody diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps it's responsible for causing serious illness in old and young this often fatal serious cases shortened life expectancy due to organ damage under the case in 2005 in dairy in South Wales where a young lads Mason George died from ecology the one57 because of infected meat from a butcher's in Bridgend John Tudors up to 30% of cases come down with hemolytic uremic syndrome hit us is the major cause of acute renal failure especially in children but also adults in 1996 in Wishon Scotland 21 people died because of e.coli food polish them and they were all old age pensioners the growth rate of this bacteria is 3 to 46 degrees Celsius optimum temperature about 37 degrees C the duration of the illness is around two weeks unless no complications and again dependent on the peers weather very young or old other characteristics include is a graph negative rod it requires a low effective dose less than 100 bacteria so facultative anaerobe and it's acid tolerant it's destroyed by thorough cooking around a thousand cases per year are reported in England and Wales and it's more common in Scotland and it's not easily diagnosed because this bacteria is acid tolerant it can quite easily pass through the stomach's defense mechanism ie the gastric juices and settle into the small intestine whereas you will start to grow and it will start to release poisons which then enter the bloodstream through the small intestine sources of e.coli include the intestines of animals including cattle and sheep and also man person to person is likely also from manured vegetables and food crops and untreated water used for drinking and bathing and also raw milk common food vehicles include cooked meat by a cross-contamination undercook mince and burgers mainly beef and lamb raw milk cheese made from unpasteurized milk apple juice and salad vegetables which have been contaminated with manure another example of e—coli food poisoning is from food handlers or fruit pickers rather who don't wash their hands after going to the toilet especially on fruit farms say picking apples pears strawberries grapes and melons these farms tend to be large farms within Oh toilet facilities so the fruit pickers tend to go to the toilet behind the head don't wash their hands and so any e.coli bacteria will be transferred from their hands tough trips so all's be careful when you bite through the in from a supermarket always wash it well use all the fruit that arrives at the supermarket is not washed or disinfected before it's sold control factors include prevention of cross-contamination thorough cooking especially mints and burgers washing of salad vegetables of fruit high standards of personal hygiene especially in particular two hand washing done strict segregation of rule and high-risk foods other control factors include avoiding untreated milk and apple juice training of food handlers increase in consumer awareness and the use of effective hazard analysis because of the outbreak of e.coli zero one five seven in Whishaw in Scotland in 1996 the subsequent deaths of 21 elderly people Professor Hugh Pennington of Aberdeen University was asked by the government to put a report together with some recommendations to ensure that such an outbreak didn't happen again none to Penningtons recommendations were as follows first of all an education awareness program for farm workers consistent and rigorous enforcement of hygiene standards at slaughterhouses including clean and animals hasip and staff trained in accelerated implementation of hasip including documentation license in a butcher's and trained in physical separation of raw meat and unwrapped cooked meat meat products and other ready-to-eat foods improved food hygiene training for all food handlers supervisory staff from one-person operations to be trained to at least intermediate level further targeted and prioritized research food hygiene training to be provided within a primary on secretary school curriculums more resources to address enforcement and education awareness issues especially related to the dangers of cross contamination and eating undercooked products and lastly improved surveillance research and control of outbreaks including full written reports and consideration of the publication there's several different types of viruses which cause foodborne disease the norovirus our Norwalk virus then also rotaviruses is formed now these are more plane or three times the size of bacteria so that a lot smaller than bacteria very difficult to see with an optical microscope it usually requires an electron microscope to see them they multiply in living cells they cannot multiply in food by food poisoning bacteria they may survive several days outside the living cell even on dry surfaces millions are released on vomiting they mainly airborne on person-to-person infection is commonly on the enter the digestive tract by the fecal-oral route on his only small numbers required between ten and a hundred particles so it's a low infective dose the incubation period between 10 and 50 hours the symptoms include some diarrhea vomiting which is often projectile abdominal pain fever nausea fatalities array and the symptoms are relatively mild the durations between 12 and 16 hours usually 24 to 36 hours on specimens required within 48 hours this is one of those bugs that we tend to call the winter vomiting bug or the 48 hour that the normal virus up to 10% of the norovirus a–'s are foodborne with the rotavirus they the most common type of virus infection but a very rarely foodborne now a foodborne disease is called foodborne because it can be transmitted in food or through water but it doesn't grow with protein like food poisoning bacteria food vehicles food is handled frequently sewage polluted water especially when used to clean fruit lettuce and shellfish control measures include using reputable suppliers of shellfish excluded ill people and prevention across contamination and also further cooking the 75 degrees Celsius core temperature this virus is also very common in closed or confined establishments such as cruise ships prisons classrooms colleges it's very easily dispersed by people with the infection actually sneezing or coughing in a small confined environment and it lasts between 12 and 16 hours but it disappears as quickly as it appears the stereopsis is the name of the disease and is caused by the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes the incubation period is one day to three months duration of the illness between 48 on 72 hours symptoms include a flu-like illness and general malaise diarrhea and mild fever septicemia meningitis especially in vulnerable groups and abortion if the mother is affected this is a psychotropic Vassilis in other words it grows quite easily at low temperatures the growth range is between minus 1.5 degrees Celsius to 42 degrees Celsius other characteristics include its gram-positive the people most at risk and neonates pregnant women remain low suppressed persons and the elderly it tends to dominate other organisms at low temperatures and with pregnant women it's not so much the pregnant woman as effective as the unborn child because the bacteria implants itself into the placenta so it prevents nutrients oxygen getting to the unborn child so it usually ends up either with the woman out of an abortion or having a miscarriage or stillbirth sources of this bacteria include the intestines and feces of humans and animals effluent and sewage sludge that in many cases in cross infection it's a common environmental organism specific foods more susceptible as soft cheeses and pate especially if they made with unpasteurized milk or if the parties not cooked at high enough temperature to kill the bacteria it's possible while most foods especially manure contaminated vegetables so again if you do use vegetables raw make sure you wash and scrub them well before use control factors for listeriosis include the efficient disposal of sewage avoidance of cross-contamination susceptible groups to avoid soft cheese and pate and contact with farm animals care with the shelf-life of chilled foods feta cookin the effective cleaning and disinfection and dry cleaning is preferred typhoid paratyphoid sometimes called enteric fever typhoid cultured the bacteria Salmonella typhi Impala typhoid comes in the bacteria Salmonella typhi so you could example there were some dollars both a foodborne disease and a food poisoning organism the incubation period is three days to one month typically eight to fourteen days duration of the illness is one to eight weeks symptoms include fever malaise slow pulse enlarged spleen gross spots on trunk constipation or severe diarrhea fatality rate is between two and ten percent thus for typhoid ie Salmonella typhi up to five percent of permanent carriers other characteristics include its present in feces and urine transmission again as with most food borne diseases is very the fecal-oral route sources of this bacteria include feces and urine also sewage contaminated water and food and from carriers control factors include using safe water suppliers satisfactory disposal of sewage heat treatment of milk control over contaminated shellfish so using approved and reputable suppliers the exclusion of carriers high standards of personal hygiene especially good hand-washing regimes on the use of an effective food safety management system such as hasip hepatitis A is another virus in other words is very much smaller than bacteria and it becomes part of the host cell almost acting like a parasite now there are about eight different types of hepatitis A through H hepatitis A with about one or two others are the only foodborne disease of viruses the other ones you can infection due to blood infections sexual contact the use of shared needles etc hepatitis literally means inflammation of the liver so that's the main organ that this virus will attack causing anything from inflammation to swollen liver to liver failure the incubation period is between 15 and 50 days symptoms there is an abrupt onset fever malaise nausea abdominal pain and later jaundice Ozzy Jonas is one of those symptoms where when the liver starts to fail because the liver as well as the kidneys are the body's natural filters to remove all poisons when the liver stops working and the poisons stay within the body therefore the jaundice is part of those symptoms duration of the illness is anywhere between one week and several months the fatality rate is less than 1% again it been a foodborne disease is transmitted via the fecal-oral route also Yuling can be infected sources include carriers on his caridina feces urine and blood contaminated food especially shellfish salad vegetables and soft fruit and also contaminated water control factors include the use of safe water supplies satisfactory disposal of sewage heat treatment of milk exclusion of carriers high standards of personal hygiene especially with good hand-washing regimes avoided suspect shellfish the use of approved and reputable suppliers on the careful washing of salad vegetables and soft field dysentry is caused by the organisms Shigella Sanae and Shigella flex nari the incubation period is between 1 in 7 days typically 4 days duration of the illness is between 2 and 16 days symptoms include is an acute disease diarrhea often contain a blood mucus and pus fever stomach cramps often vomiting the death rate is less than 1% Shigella flex nearly is more likely to be fatal in Shigella Senay outbreaks a fairly common in infant and junior schools and it spreads for the usual fecal all over the causes of food borne disease sources include infected people usually children of primary school age contaminated food and water also there has been cases from imported iceberg lettuce its control factors include good personal hygiene attention to washing hands effectively after using the toilet cleaning and disinfection in toilet areas general cleaning and disinfection an exclusion of carriers other control factors include the chlorination of water supplies the effective disposal of sewage heat treatment of milk and avoiding shellfish from suspect waters in other words using approved or reputable suppliers brucellosis or undulant fever is the disease caused by Brucella supporters of Bruce AMA militant says the incubation period is between five in 21 days symptoms is an intubated fever and it has flu-like symptoms on his extended depression and headache vets are particularly at risk from this bacteria or from these bacteria is literature involved TB or tuberculosis again is the disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis a micro bacterium vulvas the incubation period is four to six weeks later stages may take years it affects the lungs bones lymph nodes kidneys intestines and skin on this disease is classed as a chronic bacterial disease chronic means it takes a long time to develop sources of both diseases include contact an infected animal usually a cow ingesting raw milk and dairy products for infected herds on person-to-person especially with TV control factors for both brucellosis on tuberculosis it was the radication scheme introduced in the 60s and 70s and he treatment have reduced the problem greatly also avoid raw milk and products made from raw milk other diseases not caused by bacterial viruses include BSE which is bovine spongiform encephalopathy this is a neurological disease of cattle on the epidemic started in 1986 in 1993 there are thousand cases per week the causative agent is a prior or a protein iron which is resistant to heat chemicals and irradiation it's detected in the brain and nerve tissues of effective catalog unsuspected in limp tissue have not isolated from musclor in 1988 as a ban on in fact the material and feed in 1997 cattle over 30 months were slaughtered and incinerated the transmission of this disease was thought to be from scrape infected bone meal from sheep and this was fed to the cattle this vertical transmission of BSE is from counter carve another diseases CJD which is the human equivalent of the hace miss dancer creutzfeldt-jakob disease and here there's usually a long incubation period up to 40 years and is fatal within a year and with this there's a progressive decline in cognitive and motor functions of the brain ERD access and cryptosporidiosis are protozoa giardiasis and Cryptosporidium says are the diseases the protozoa caused in these diseases are Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium they enter our system by the fecal-oral route cysts of the porter's or persistent environmental water tests if you like in a bit like spores outbreaks are awful from water contaminated with animal feces the incubation period Figgy our diocese is 6 to 22 days for cryptosporidiosis is around 10 days in some parts of the Amazonian rainforest some tribes eat the brains of their deceased relatives it's part of their culture they think that when the deceased relative dies if they eat the brain of that relative the energy on Mike force is transferred to the person to the brain and this has given rise to a disease called kuru which is a bit like CJD is caused by a prior of 14 iron and again there is a progressive decline in cognitive and motor functions the brain is usually fatal within a year other problematic organisms include parasites the parasite is a plant or animal it lives and feeds on or in another plant or animal known as the host it can have complicated life cycles which may involve different hosts tiniest saggin Artur is a tapeworm Trichinella spiralis around wounds and you'll find these in undercooked pork and horse flesh so it's always important never to undercook or he must cook it a 75 but some meats like beef lamb and duck especially as a muscle joint you can undercooked so it's pink array but never do that with pork because of this parasite fussy Ola hepatica is a liver fluke and Acura caucus granulosus is now hydrated cyst this slider to the comparison of food poisoning and food borne disease first of all is from the poison and millions of bacteria are required with food borne disease only small numbers are acquired so it could be called a low dose pathogen or take a low infective dose with food poisoning bacteria multiply on the food within the nutrients the protein with a food borne disease food is only a vehicle the food poison vehicles other than food are unlikely with food bone disease and the vehicles are common food poisoning person-to-person is rare foodborne disease person-to-person is common food poisoning airborne is unlikely with food borne disease airborne is common food poisoning normally as a short onset but is quickly food borne disease as a longer onset and here are the key points for lecture 5 only a small number of foodborne disease organisms required to cause a problem multiplication in food in the protein is not essential airborne and person the person spread is common pets farm animals and birds the common source of foodborne disease organism compiler bhakta is the most common cause of diarrhea in the UK Listeria can multiply significantly in a fridge the penitent report recommended certain areas which we looked at in quite detail

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