Global launch of OECD PISA Student Well-Being Report | Hosted by the Education Policy Institute

Global launch of OECD PISA Student Well-Being Report | Hosted by the Education Policy Institute



good morning my name is Han Ho and I'm responsible for the JP Morgan Chase Foundation work in Europe Middle East in Africa and Latin America and I'm very glad to welcome all of you here this morning to such an extreme audience to the JP Morgan great hall I hope that you will all agree with me that we have ended up in a rather unique and apt venue for today's event the Great Hall of the Old City of London school for boys so we're surrounded by history of educators in high achievers and I'm sure great many success which serves as a good reminder that Education and Skills have always served as a foundation for our economies holding up our enterprises a household in our communities there is another pituitary's in' who i am especially delighted to be hosting today's launch as it's a result of a partnership between two organizations that we JPMorgan have held in great esteem and are collaborating with on two very distinct but two very complementary initiatives our partnership with both the OECD working on occupational skills mismatch indicators as well as with epi working on a cost-benefit analysis of the dual apprenticeship system from a firm's perspective if part of the JP Morgan's broader commitment to creating and enabling more economic opportunities and also enabling greater access to them for all we do this because we believe that the success of our firm is intrinsically linked to the success of our communities and that we have a significant responsibility and also a vital contribution to make and when we look at the complex economic social technological challenges that we're all facing today we have to acknowledge the reality that despite the tremendous progress that has been achieved over the past 50 years globally there are parts of the society that are not benefiting from this progress do many people are being shut out of the rewards of a growing economy and the frustration and disillusionment that this has resulted has deep and far-reaching impact we see it unfolding across Europe first as we did in the Middle East a few years back we see that in the growing indicators of inequality and lack of social mobility so during the first past five years JPMorgan Chase has embarked on a few significant initiatives long-term initiatives focusing on this imperative of promoting economic inclusion in the economic mobility and while we deployed approximately around 250 million last year to to do this we know that money alone will not solve the problem I'm sure you'll agree with me that we've all seen too often well-meaning well-intentioned money publicly and privately fail to result in long term impact so a critical part of our strategy is try to understand the underlying problems and looking in within to try to figure out some you know what are the underlying issues and we do this through data through data analysis and measurement in terms of what works and what doesn't work in order to better apply the right type of capabilities needed in order to make and create a sustainable change and this is why partnership with organizations like the OECD and epi are really critical to our approach which is informed by data and evidence of what is the most effective at driving inclusive growth our focus and our efforts are really centered around a three pillars of opportunity how to create more jobs through working with small businesses how to promote financial health and how do you develop to the work force how do you equip people with the skills that they need in order to compete in Drive in today's economy as well as the future and through the evidence of our work we see that educational attainment is absolute critical no question about that and I'm sure you agree but it is not sufficient any longer as the only attainment in order to ensure a smooth transition into the labor market nor guarantee a pathway to quality employment and also significant gender and socio-economic disparity still exist in both educational outcomes but also progression into well-paid well recognised career pathways and professionals and we all know that on balance though I'm sure that they are districts to further illustrate this that modern economies are set to require more skilled in high skilled professionals with a skill set that's match to the labor market requirement yet we see too many people particularly a disproportionate number of people from disadvantaged backgrounds they're leaving the education system with insufficient qualifications credentials and skills to obtain a foothold in the labour market never mind progress or remain in it this is why in addition to our commitment to addressing the skills mismatch for workers and employers through new skills at work we've recently committed another additional 75 million through new skills for youth with the goal of supporting institutions to prepare young people for jobs and careers by improving the access to demand led skills training and career pathways because like Pisa we believe that in addition to pure knowledge acquisition it's much more interesting to see how this knowledge can be applied and then transformed into employability and occupational skills as well making it work but similar to the observation around educational attainment we recognise that skills training alone will not suffice and we know that through our experiences with a foundation and an employer other social cultural and economic capitals matter as well and to compete effectively with their peers particularly peers or more advantaged backgrounds young people need early practical exposure to the world of work and quality guidance from their social networks informally and formally they need to be able to imagine themselves in a job which may exert once seemed alien and beyond their skills and experience they need contact professional network will help them make the imaginative leap yet evidence has shown time and again that if you're from a particular background or particular demography you won't have this access to the same educational opportunities the culture circles or the professional networks and you definitely won't be able to make an informed choice or informed choices about your future careers and pathways we know that this is a territory that is most fragmented it's difficult to replicate it's even more difficult to scale but we also know that this is the area what JP Morgan can be most effective the crossroad where education meets employment while we're able to deploy our broadest asset both as a foundation as an as well as an employer to create the deepest impact or so we hope that's what we're working towards and we're under no illusion that this is a complex and multifaceted challenge with a long tail starting very early on in early childhood and so moving the dial will need many actors across many sectors driving and pushing and pulling many different levers along this long journey of the young person's life and so we're glad to be able to play our part and make the contribution that we're able to make through the partnerships such as those with the OECD and epi so welcome to everybody this morning and we really look forward to hearing the result thank you [Applause] Thank You Han for that introduction and thank you so much to you and colleagues at the JPMorgan foundation for hosting us this morning and these lovely surroundings I'm Nathalie Pereira the executive director and head of research at the Education Policy Institute and last December we were really delighted at the EPI to be able to host a global launch of the PISA 2015 ISO findings on excellence and equity in education amongst osed nations and it's a real privilege for us once again to be able to work with colleagues in the OECD and with the JP Morgan foundation to co-host today's findings on student well-being now the Pisa rankings and the wealth of information that sits beneath those rankings are increasingly becoming the go-to place for international performance and comparisons in education and so we're very pleased to be able also to play our part because as well here this morning schools aren't just the place where children learn reading writing and math it's increasingly where they form relationships where they build resilience where they work in teams and where they make really important choices about their future in their lives and so it's crucial that we understand the importance of the role that the education system can play in supporting all dimensions of a child's development and it's also crucial that we understand how those wider non cognitive dimensions can then have an impact and improvement on attainment so before I hand over to Gabriela Ramos who will present the key findings from today's report I also must remind you particularly those of our media colleagues today that the key fight of the report is still under a strict embargo until 10 a.m. UK time so please do not tweet or or publish any findings before then so then following Gabriella's presentation we will then hear from la thorning-schmidt who is the chief executive of Save the Children International and there will then be some time for questions to both Gabriela and hello and then we'll take a short coffee break and then please do come back because we have a very esteemed panel who will take questions from all of you after the coffee break thank you well that was a beautiful start I just stand up and the same fight fell so but good morning and thank you for hosting us ho thank you for the introduction naturally and great to share the event with Haley we all admire for her work on with children and and you know when we wanted to present this report because as naturally mentioned we launched the piece of results on science in 2015 December here we almost feel like we call the usual suspects not every time we want to release very interesting material every time we want to share with you the issues that we learn at the HTV we are funding ourselves with the very same usual suspects so thank you for joining us again and I think that the both presentations by hope and by Natalie are putting this presentation in the right context because we are not in a back in this presentation just confirm what we have been documenting in other fields of work of the OECD which is the global economy which is the backlash against globalization which is a backlash of an economic model that probably has been in dimensional focusing on material will be which has been really delivering not very good outcomes in terms of inclusiveness and we know that we know that because that is being expressed in the voting and in the democratic processes and where would we be if is the UK who decided again to go against that very same model so in the in the piece of work and I'm joined with the Mario PA Santini who will be in the panel and by my colleagues in theory in the in the ketha of course people might be saying well you're focusing too much on cognitive skills you're focusing too much on academic achievement you're focusing too much on those issues that are important we know for performance in life and to have a fulfilling life but there are so many others things that matter for people and this is also what we're trying to do to build a new narrative for growth and to have a more multi-dimensional living standard and more inclusive which is what matters to really give results for all the people and this is what we are exactly doing with this very thin book and and if you visit the web page you will find a massive amount of data which is what matters because you can enjoy just scrolling into the batter and this is for very busy people if you would really want to get it very very fast so let me just move into the into the results and to the and to the evidence and then of course I would be very happy to to listen to help and to respond to your questions in terms of what do we do about it because this is something that we always find we inundate you with massive amounts of data and information and then you tell us and what do I do about it and that's the most important part of the of the whole thing so let me tell you what is this this volume of results from Pisa 2015 focus on how education systems can promote not only cognitive capacity but also the psychological social and physical capabilities that students need to live a happy life today and be equipped with 21st century skills and you know when you when you get all these information and the conclusion is that when you are happy you learn better it's almost like common sense no it's like Grandma talking well that exactly the case because yeah if you feel good you learn better and so how do we get into all these elements here are the issues that but I cannot see the services so it's a cognitive that of course mattered but then philosophy ecological social and physical well-being now what the data tells us here you have it the good news is that Pisa data shows the majority of fifteen-year-old students are happy they report being happy remember this is a questionnaire that we put to the 70 five countries that of the students that presented visa tests so we then asked these questions and they report on that they are happy with life satisfaction of 7.23 on a scale from zero to ten now remember also that these are the kids that are in school there are many that are not in school and therefore this is also probably capturing those that are already let's say privileged because they are still in school at age fifteen but still about twelve percent of students are not satisfied with their lives in some countries is over twenty percent this is not about grades there is little difference in reported life satisfaction between top achieving and low achieving students and then there is an additional element because Helen and I were also in Rome last week talking about gender I have to say that there is a very worrisome result regarding gender in this report again we confirm and this is evidence that girls report low levels of satisfaction that they are subject to a lot of pressures from the social media that they are less happy with themselves and so this is something that we also need to tackle from the gender perspective and also for the self-confidence of girls that we know and we have measured also that is lower than the boys on average across osed countries you have it here boys and girls around twenty nine percent of girls but very ninety percent of boys reported that they are very satisfied with their lives this is a ten percentage point difference and I think Mario will confirm I think that in the UK is worse I think that the girls in the UK even report higher and and actually we had a very interesting held ministerial that was chaired by the UK Minister of Health and from the health perspective they're very concerned about the psychological disorders that girls are reporting and the more problems that we get in the health system for all these girls that arrived to hospitals because they feel bad or they really are under a lot of of the stress so this is a very important point now disadvantaged students report themselves around zero point point lower than advantage schools on the ten point scale satisfaction and this is just normal low income groups of course have more levels of stress set the self evaluation in comparison to more advantage students and obstacles to achieving material education health and leisure goals are likely to be behind the difference between high-income and low-income students but the lower life satisfaction reported by fifteen-year-old girls in Pisa is probably reflection of girls house club criticism but also the society also the role model that we promote the stereotyping that we promote the the kind of lower level of ambition for girls in school and in and in the end and in the houses and let me tell you we also found that that girls sometimes are rated lower in a trend by teachers which is also in acceptable Peter 2015 does not collect that on a student's Bobby's image but the results on eating habit revealed that girls what were much more likely than boys to skip breakfast or more likely to skip dinner and in the UK is higher the percentage point difference between girls and boys is keeping breakfast was particularly high at 14 percentage point almost double the OECD average this is for the UK the average in the OECD is 8 points now research of course to get that exposure to image of overleaf in girls and women in traditional media on social media have negative impact on girls satisfaction about themselves and this is the fifteen-year-old so it's a very very sensitive time in the lives of girls and this causes this complex and multifaceted problem but of course the role of media in promoting gender stereotypes we undermining girls well-being and we're starting to look at these issues because it's very important you can do a lot of policies in all the fields and if you continue reproducing this stereotype and in massive media is just not going to work now what other elements count on the student well-being we measure anxiety anxiety about schoolwork is one of the sources of stress more often stated by all school-aged children and adolescents and in fact is it strongly correlated to life satisfaction and of course we we all can have a side you of course because you need to perform because you have pressure because you have to deliver but when it reaches level that impaired or kind of put a brake on your own learning processes then it becomes a problem here is the able on anxiety on average across osed countries students who reported the highest level of anxiety also reported a low level of life satisfaction in one point two points below lower than students who reported the lowest level of anxiety regarding text and and what can I tell you I think the UK is one of the champions in terms of putting a lot of pressure for tests delivering on tests and these really increases the anxiety for for for kids if this is more pronounced a two point lower school work related and cited is complex and variable but common sources of excited a high competitive learning environment and long study hours and for example in Belgium and Israel students in the schools with long study times are at least 11 percentage point more likely to report that they feel anxious for a test even if they are well-prepared than a students in school with short study time and this is very interesting because anxiety is not related to performance you would imagine that kids that do well will be less anxious but it's not true even if they are well prepared or if they are top performers they can also report very high levels of anxiety depending on how the system operates the key is to reduce anxiety while promoting motivation and across all countries and economies that participated in Pisa 2015 students with greater overall motivation to achieve reported high higher satisfaction satisfaction with life and we need to get rid of this idea that you put pressure they need to compete and they need to be the top and they need to be resilient and the fact is that there are so many ways to achieve good outcomes without putting people in so much stress and we learn from each other because one of the points of pieces of course with to choke the more the systems that do better and I want to show you three cases the red ones in Netherlands and Switzerland because these are two top performer countries and performers who actually demonstrated that they have lower levels of anxiety and systems that are more that rivers report higher levels of well-being not only they the students in these countries do relatively a high on the average in science on Pisa but also report higher levels of satisfaction and here it's a the students in this countries live like sleep than their peers to report feeling anxious for tests and you will see it here look where they are is amazing and they are top performers so we almost want to bottle their knowledge and sell it and then we would not have any budgetary problem but the practice that is amazing that these kids do not report the same level of anxiety across OECD countries 56% of students that report that they feel anxious for at least for a test even if they are well-prepared this was 49 in Finland so 7 points below 39 in the Netherlands and only 34 in Switzerland are there any region that in the audience well ok so they will not share it but we will last module on average 37 percent of students report that they feel very tense when they study but only 21 percent of students in Switzerland 18 percent of students in Finland and only 14% of students compared to 37 percent average only 14 percent of students in Finland and in the Netherlands reported that they feel very tense when they study so we and this of course is related on how the school and the teachers manage their classes and how do they develop support system for students and here again you see students who want to be one of the best in their class not plan to be to want it to be competitive or one of the best of the class but the fact is that how do we encourage the students to be self-motivated and high achievers without really just getting into this very strong competitive mood so the key for is to foster motivation without excessive external pressure to be the best or fear of failure how do we teach our kids to deal with failure this is a very important element without destroying the self-esteem because these really causes anxiety and this is life you will see that students again in the Netherlands Finland and Switzerland feel much less the pressure to be the best in their class given they still achieve high scores in Pisa their motivation to perform seems to be more positive more intrinsic and more confident and to increase well-being and raise performance teachers and parents need to find ways to encourage the students motivation to learn and achieve without generating and excessive fear of failure and of course teachers have a very important role to play I think this is every time we present any report on Pisa is about teachers and of course is about parents and it's about students these are tell us that schools where students are happy when they report the higher life satisfaction than the country average is also schools in which the students report higher levels of learning support from their teachers after accounting for students performance gender and socioeconomic status students who reported that their science teacher adapt their lessons to the classmates and knowledge were less likely to report feeling answers even if they are well prepared for a test or to report that they get very tense when they study and this is important because teenagers are looking for strong social ties acceptance care and support from others when students feel supported by the teachers and that they are part of a caring school community they are more likely to perform better academically and be more motivating in schools and it doesn't matter if the school is rich or poor with lots of equipments or not it's about the teacher and how much the teacher care about the students and support them on the other hand negative student-teacher relationship are strongly linked to a low sense of belonging as psychological stress distress on average across the OECD students who reported that the teacher grade them hardens and other students are 40% more likely to get very tense for student you have it here in the graph 44% and the students who feel their teacher does not think they are smart as they really are a 60% more likely to get very tense with a student and this is also related to gender because parents and this is also documented parents and school teachers have lower expectations for girls and these then becomes self-fulfilling because if you are not expected to be high achiever why would you even do the effort another worried association is that in most countries school where a student's felt offended or treated unfairly by the teacher are also school with a higher frequency of bullying and bullying is a it's a real problem and I think it is one of the main messages of this report if we were to achieve something with these analysis would be to focus on eliminating bully because it has devastated effect and in case it has devastated effect in school and it has better stated effect in our societies and and it is happening in our watch is there and we are just look that's how these effects all of these kids negative student-teacher relationship are strongly linked to a low sense of belonging and CMC psychological distress and an average across the OECD is students who reported that the teacher have not least you saw it this gets a teacher important role models in favor cater and respect and should be trained in basic methods of observation listening and intercultural communication to help better their students and unfortunately teacher 2015 data shows an alarming large proportion of students that are reported to be bullying in in the scope around eleven percent of students reported that they are frequency this is the this is the kind of bullying theorem that I want to report to you 11 percent of students reported that they are frequently made fun of 7 percent reported that they are frequently left out of things and eight percent reported that they are frequently the object of nasty rumor rumors in school around 4 percent of students roughly one per class reported that they are heat or push at least a few times per month and here in the UK bullying in knowledge speedform is above oacd average well there is no one-size-fits-all approach for preventing bullying effective anti-bullying programs involve a whole school approach with coordinated engagement among teachers and students and parents and again we can learn from some from some practices in other countries for example in the caste really on in Spain only 10.7% students reported feeling threatened by other students compared to the OECD average of three-point-seven the region anti-bullying plan incorporates measures like supporting victims reallocating offenders of dating bullying protocol and coordinating actions to help by fight against bullying other countries can learn from these best practices and ensure that we address this very damaging problem but well-being is dynamic and fragile balance to be achieved and it is undermined in one part of our lives if this can also spell over in other parts of the world so not only what happens inside the school but also what happens outside the school is important for wellbeing of children parents family and carers have a critical role to play and this is a message that Pisa has also sent everywhere around the world parents need to care and perish me to get engaged is not just leaving the kids in the school and let me tell you that just by children all these things were asked to parents and the last line spend time just talking to my child it's just amazing in terms of being but you can have in the life satisfaction are supported by children you don't even need to be a high achiever parent and helping kids with all of the material things for them to increase just sit with them and talk to them and this is just proven there because it's even higher than attending a school meetings or discussing how are they doing in school is just talking to them what becomes very very important and and of course other activities outside home are also important physical activities it is also common sense but as I say a healthy mind and healthy body on average across OECD countries its students who reported taking part in some moderate or vigorous physical activity are 2.9 percentage point less likely to feel very anxious about tests 7.7% such pointless likely to feel like an outsider at school and another but however on average a noisy country's about 5.7 boys and 7 points:5 of girls reported that they do not participate in any form of physical activity outside school with disadvantages student being most affected and well many don't do any exercise is sitting and spending a lot of time watching television playing video games and increasingly going online and this is again becoming a real problem because having access to Internet is good and having access to all these tools are very important but they are abused in many in many ways here the between 2012 and 2015 the time spent online outside school increased by 40 minutes per day on both weekends and weekdays across OECD countries 90% of students enjoy using digital devices but Pisa 2015 resolve conflicts and economies extreme internet use more than six hours per day has a negative relationship with students life satisfaction and performance and I have to say that the UK is also a champion in terms of the use increased use and an accumulated hours per day in terms of Internet and social networks and it is also a source of pressure for kids of anti-bullying which is another feature after accounting for student socioeconomic status extreme Internet user score around 33 points lower in all subjects visa assesses then students who use the internet list now what are the implications for policy aside as I mentioned to you what do we do about all these and of course it will depend on the country where you are it depends on how you structure the school it depends from the social preferences but the reality that we also have some interesting results to share with you first countries can design interventions to promote psychological health motivation and confidence at school and is very important I think the way we frame the fact that cognitive skills is what matter is wrong is completely wrong because the learning process is much more complex and includes all of the skills that human beings have social emotional tolerance empathy itself Brazilian self-confidence all these things are important and actually these other skills that we have been neglecting for life help the cognitive skills because if kids that are motivated that our feel good are of course much more proud to be learning a fast and they are very interesting examples for example Korea which is one of the countries that reported first on well being they are trying to innovate they are developing free semester for kids not to be subject to academic or to have more extracurricular activities in the UK the pre-service health education program includes applied health and well-being elements and teacher training Finland's school of the moves is a national action strategy that takes the student into their local environment to work with the community fostering caring a school environment for example with here and teacher-student relationship the key male image Fiona and Switzerland is focusing to how to help it to deal with their emotions and it's also of course important to design education policies that promote positive synergies between the school and the home of measurement Australia a student will be helped involves the whole community the house and teaching kids healthy habits and here is the list of policy implications the whole point is how do we support is how do we give a personalized support how do we help teachers to focus on the needs of the specific kids and to and to make the interventions so targets and so well oriented into the needs of kids and to build up this more comprehensive agenda that the probably will deliver better societies than what we have been able to achieve and this is a beautiful quote that at least put in my speech the great Eng English novelist Agra Ham green one says that there is always a moment in childhood with the door opens and let's the future in this is beautiful I think that this is what we are all aiming to to prepare kids to be ready when that door opens thank you very much [Applause] Thank You Gabriela for that incredibly insightful and overview of the findings from today's report and there's lots of other detailed messages that come out from the report today so please do take the time to to go through the findings – and we will cover we'll have some time for Q&A both with Gabriela and with our expert panel later on and but right now I'd like to introduce you to an Helle thorning-schmidt who is the chief executive of Save the Children International – to be here I have been a fan of Pisa for for many years I have also find myself in a position when I was Prime Minister and Denmark to be extremely annoyed with the results that came out of Pisa but I always believed that the whole thinking about the Pisa is amazing because basically what we are saying to ourself is that we are we want to learn from the best we want to learn from our neighbors we want to learn from the people who actually proved to be the best performance or performance in a certain area and also what Gabriella will say the business data we are insisting on a data revolution so that we can really not argue with what comes out so I think that's an amazing thing and I always felt that it was the right thing for developed countries to really look at their neighbors to find out who is performing well but I also find the Pisa what the keep Pisa does is very very close to our hearts in say the children because in say the Chile you believe that children should have a voice children need a voice and what this survey does is actually to give children a strong voice it looks closely at what children are how they're doing how they're feeling and it delivers with their voice a very clear message to policymakers that is very very powerful we just heard from Gabriella and I think what this report does is that it takes the discussion and children's voice even further because it asks children not only about their performance but it asks children of about almost every part of their life that affects their performance in school and it shows very very clearly that to do well in school it is not as Gabriella says only positive skills it is a cocktail of all the things that influence a child's life and to go to the question how much time are you actually talking to your parents even though it is so evident there so self-evident that that is important for a child it is so important to get the data on these issues so I thank you very very much for doing it it is a very powerful document that you have presented us with today thank you so much for that and and I also feel this is something that I can be using in my world and I think that's why I've been invited today because I wasn't discussing myself why I've actually been invited to talk to me but I think it's also because the results that you're presenting is something that we can use in the in a developing world and in humanitarian settings as well which is what I'm going to talk a little bit about because as I said it is there to say the children who have children's voice being a change agent for politicians but it is also there to my heart I see savor children and what what we're doing is basically we work for children 100 more than 120 countries across the world one of our main issues is of course that all children in this world benefit from a quality education get access to education but not only that that they benefit from a quality education and I believe that education is perhaps the most empowering force in the world for the individual child but also for our global community because what education does is that it creates knowledge it builds confidence it breaks down the barriers for each individual child and it creates opportunity it is so powerful and for children of course it is always always part of their pathway to create a better life for themselves and their families so education also have a very strong tendencies it's a tendency to work for the next generation however right now as we talk to each other this morning around the world hundreds hundreds of millions of children are still missing out of that opportunity you all have heard about Malala she just became the youngest-ever a UN messenger of peace and she described this heart-wrenching situation best when she said to the world in some parts of the world students are going to school every day it's their normal life but in other parts of the world we are starving for education it's like a precious gift it's like a diamond those are very powerful words and all of us in this room believe that all children deserves that precious gift that precious gift of education that can change their lives and in fact this is not only some only something that we believe in it is also something that we've pledged to this world should this world children that we would give to them when we all decided on the sustainable development goals we gave a commitment through this world children that we would give inclusive quality education to all children and we also promised that we would do that by 2030 however we can see not now that if we continue at the current pace we are going to miss this deadline of by about 50 years we're not going to deliver by 2030 we're going to miss it by 50 years and that is up to three more generations of children being let down my message is simple we can't let this happen and we have and we have to work very hard now to make things go in a different direction and we have to invest in the most disadvantaged children first that could be the Syrian children taking refuge refuge in Jordan it could be children from deprived communities in the wealthiest of the OECD countries and I think after this point come across clearly in the report on the latest piece of result where it is stated and I quote learning should not be hindered by whether a child comes from a poor family as an immigrant background is raised by a single parent or has limited resources at home successful education understands this so our goal is clear successful education systems find find ways to treat have to find ways to reach children that are for many reasons left behind and the next question of course is how do we achieve that there is no magic bullet unfortunately however I want to suggest four things that we could do to please get us back on track first we have to face up to the fact of Education in emergency humanitarian situations really matter what we know is that the global refugee crisis is as bad as has been since the Second World War we have 65 million people displaced worldwide half of these people are children and that is almost always the case at half of any groups that is affected by war and conflict are children and we also know that the average time that a person cannot go back to their homes actually a refugees or on the move is now have now has to be counted in double digits not in days not in months but in years you do that and of course the humanitarian needs of refugee children and their families go well beyond food and shelter and and health interventions no we need to understand that if so many people are in a humanitarian situation education also has to be part of our humanitarian answer we're not living up to their this at the moment out of all global humanitarian funding only 2% actually goes to support education and with the number of refugee children the children out of school approaching about 4 million children this is of course nowhere near enough but I think it is fair to say I know this is a very commonly used term that if we don't invest in education for all these refugee children or children on the move we are we will lose another generation the second thing we need to be doing and that's both the international community and national governments is that we have to prioritize education funding and the scale of this challenge is actually enormous to get the 260 million children current out of school back into into school and to make the hundred thirty million children currently only reaching great for the without learning anything I mean that's the other tragic that we have in this world that we send a lot of children to school 113 million children do not learn anything when they are in school so does the solution to this enormous problem of course have to be quite big that means that governments need to grow their tax base to fund education ideally idea that they should spend up to 6 percent of their GDP on education far too many countries are not doing that now and of course international donors should not back away from this channels this catalyst channels they also have to be part of this solution the education share of our own overseas development projects should increase over the next year's but if we do all this we will still by 2030 be 25 billion short of what needs to be met in our to meet our global education goal and that is why I am member of this Education Commission's chaired by Gordon Brown we have suggested that we on the international arena creates a new financing tool that could actually build up financing for education because I think it goes without saying we will not be able to do this unless we have much more fight a new financing tool for education the third thing we need to do to get closer to our goals is that government simply have to learn more from each other learning from the best just like that is the whole rest on their platform for the Pisa work and that's what we're trying to do also in this Education Commission that I just talked about we are a group of government the civil society business leaders who are working to get all countries in the world to improve their system and our goal is for perform for the performance of all countries the rise to the level of the progress being made by the top 25% of a new education improve us today so we are actually trying to say the piece of way of thinking that is what we want to use for the whole world and really push the low performers to to look at what the 25% best performance in education are doing and doing it across the piece not only OECD but globally and I think that could make a huge difference because it actually matters for an African country like Ghana or something like that to show what they're doing to show that they're doing well so other countries can learn from that and the fourth thing we have to do and I must agree with Gabrielle on that as well I think we go to the same conferences are too much but we have to prioritize girls we have in this world almost 418 million women around the world who are illiterate two-thirds of the global population of a literal adults are actually women so it is very clear that we must stop excluding girls from education how do we do that well of course this as so many other issues are extremely complex but one thing one place to start is to make sure that girls are not becoming brides girls should not marry but but we know that one girl on the 15 is married every 7 seconds a girl's under 15 should be focused on starting a new year in school not starting a new life of disadvantage as as mothers we must stop girls being married off we must make sure that we create a world where this is not the norm and where girls are sent to school not into marriage and this is actually also something that could have enormous economic impact on our world because if we close the gender gap in education by 2030 and of course education is an enormous part of that we are looking at benefits to the global economy of about 25 trillion u.s. dollars is a staggering amount and even if it's not close to that 25 trillion it's a big amount so I think you know actually underlines that upfront investment needs it does seem quite small to what we can gain from educating girls worldwide and these are suggestions to what we can be doing now and one of the big discussions that I feel we have an education these years is that we are not separating the OECD countries and the developing countries and humanitarian settings one of the discussions we have to have on the coming years is to learn from all countries to bring these figures together so when I start out saying that I wasn't sure why I got invited I worked out that is why I worked out that in order for the least developed countries to improve in order for us to keep focusing on education in humanitarian settings we need to all learn from each other and the findings that you have of this report will go directly into the mindset of how we work in in developing countries so thank you for for doing this I believe it is when we share the data create the states of evolution put all the factors together that we can make real progress so let's do that together thank you very much [Applause] thank you both and that incredibly empowering thoughtful a couple of sessions and now how I suspect we do this is we have a panel session after the coffee break with the OECD report orther Mario and with three other UK experts both in practice and academia and so what I suggest is if you have any detailed questions on the OECD report or indeed the policy implications for the UK specifically you might want to wait to ask Mario and colleagues later on this morning what you might like to ask both of Gabriella and halay about now is about the global implications and what nations can do in response to some of the findings we've been talking about this morning and so us but we can also talk a buzzer through the UK bill completely worried so I'll take questions if you could tell us your name and your organization that that would be great so just at the front yeah our educational sorry education partnerships group I have a question about the the presentation that Gabriella made earlier on the differences in well-being across countries which was mostly highlighted by the report and in most OECD findings that it is often comparison across countries that that is the most interesting finding for the media and for a lot of users of the information but it seems like that that there were significant differences within countries in terms of how how young people differ in their well-being their their levels of anxiety and other you have a factors that you presented earlier so the question is is is the biggest challenge within countries that countries have solutions already that are under implementation under execution to address these challenges or is it that really there are some countries because of their systems because of cultural factors because of historical factors that you have these very market differences in children's young people's well-being thank you okay well I think you answer the question because it's a you said is it how they organize their systems is it how they impact the school performance with outside forces and the parents and the society in which they talk it well this is what really explains the within country performance because the reality that you have even even in the countries that on average perform well you would always see that there are very clear difference in certain regions regional divides are very high in all of the OECD countries you will have differences between neighborhoods we should not forget that the socio-economic situation of kids also a very strong determinant of their well-being in general and then you reproduce this notion that better of schools and this is something that Helen mentioned better of schools will always provide better quality teaching that focus not only on academic achievement but also in trying to develop all the other skills that will provide the kids with self-confidence and more elements to fulfill their full potential but this is located also in the same consistence so you can learn from your own country in which areas you are performing better in which schools are performing better indeed in this in these domains and the beauty of all the data that we have is that there is not one single Khan that can say that they get everything perfect we have these examples of the Netherlands of Switzerland and of Finland because in general they do better but the reality is that of course they have also their own problems and they have been able to address probably the impact of what I mentioned the lack of engagement of parents or the impact of internet use or the way you organize the school practices that provide negative pressure or teaching lack of engagement with with kids that comes with a not so positive outcomes the whole question goes down again on how do you help teachers to acknowledge these roles that they play and how do you help them deal with a much more difficult agenda to manage is much easier to say okay let's focus on math and science and learning and I just prepare a test and I just put the pressure on kids then saying that let's look at the overall development of a human being and let's see what differentiated need each students have and for that of course you need a lot of support system in the schools you need to look at how to reduce the administrative burden of teachers you need to see how do you develop the support systems to help the most the kids that are at more disadvantage you need to see how do you tailor-made the interventions and and provide the teachers with the capacity to recognize the very differentiated needs of each student and try to provide with each student with what they need to learn so it's a reality how you develop or how you organize the school systems and how do you provide the teachers with the with the support and the training they need to fulfill these these more complex agenda thank you and then I did a contest we've got a mic coming at happiness I thank you very much my name is Jenny Anderson I write for courts I think those of us who covered pizza for a long time have definitely been very anxious to see this report to kind of bail again this idea of is there a cost to the very high performance the very very high achieving countries Singapore did incredibly well obviously in 2015 pieces across the board and all three categories I was surprised to see the conclusion at the performance between high academic achievement and I'm trying to just make sure I get this right between performance and Happiness to be weak and yet I do know that at least many of the countries I cover in Singapore and and Shanghai there are a lot of efforts underway to try to take pressure off of kids because there are very high anxiety levels high suicide rates in Korea you've highlighted one of the efforts so I wanted you to just expand on that weak link and and and just I guess I want more assurance and how we come to that conclusion there were high anxiety levels in some of the high-achieving countries but again there seems to be this weak overall performance so if you wouldn't mind just maybe elaborating a little bit on how you got there that would be very helpful thank you I would refrain some way to cooperate because because the realities of what the report tell us is high levels of achievement produce high level of satisfaction and Happiness let's say so low achievement failure produces a lot of stress and a lot of unhappiness so so the question is not whether you promote high achievement or not we all need to promote that achievement but how do you do that taken into account as I said the other set of skills that we need to be developing for kids to deliver and look at what I mentioned in the presentation before which was amazing look at how the students in the high achiever systems like Switzerland define themselves as a high achievers they don't say I want to be the best and beat everybody and I want to be obtaining the best grades ever all the time what they say is that they really want to succeed and be achieve their themselves by themselves their full potential not in compare with the wrist this question of ranking students and seeing that single students in terms of viewer one two three or number 34 thank you and your number three is the stigmatizing and it doesn't help and so and you might have some very highly competitive systems like asian and Korean but we know that the pressure is so high but because he's putting a lot of emphasis on the competitive type of the system which is not what we need to focus what we need to focus is how children feel that they are fulfilling the full potential that they are high achievers but not in comparison to others you don't need to be beating the others you really need to be seeing and this is what the teacher needs to do how do they convey to these kids that they are really achieving their maximum independently of where that maximum puts them in terms of the overall is called a system and then the conclusion that Haley also mentioned in terms of what the D sub stories have been telling us in 2000 is focusing on low achievers focusing on those kids that beat the most super on those that have trouble understanding the lessons how did we what was the main conclusion of the pizza science results in 2015 exactly that the teacher was translating his knowledge into something that would make the click to the to the to the students head now and it requires very different training because it's not the general question is just how this is specific it is going to understand what I'm trying to explain and so it's a more personalized kind of intervention and getting away from the from only studying for the test and getting the best grades and being the best compared to the others is how do you ensure that kids feel that they're doing their best achieving their best independently of what the others do and it's a very very complex because you are really demanding you didn't putting a lot of pressure on teachers because teachers need to know their students better and need to have more resources on how to achieve this learning process particularly with those students that are in difficult situations but it also requires for example external support from the teacher that is dealing with the academic subjects more and more you need psychologists in the school more and more you need support teaching assistance for teachers that will help them address because even the fact that was the documented vulnerable kids or kids there are low performers that feel that they kept have access to somebody that will help them close the gap just by knowing that they have that option it helps them gain confidence that they will be able to deliver so it's a very important element to try to identify what are the specific needs of kids and provide the system around school to help this to happen and as I said it's a hover of the coverall system it's not only the school it's also with the parents as I said and it's also the kind of support that they receive and in the integration and and listen what Korea is doing they're very worried because it's not only about the pressure of the anxiety or this question of being the best these kids they have high levels of suicide they have lots of bullying very high levels of bullying very difficult social social relationship peer relationships and and what they're doing is they're is trying with this free semester to see how would it be if we have focused too much on the cognitive how would it be to provide kids with music to provide kids with extra curricular to provide kids with more exercise to get rid of exams and see how we can manage different ways of learning so this experimentation is also useful to try to diminish the pressure and in the in the kids to be overachievers but on the negative side no I mean France also France is very famous for using negative pressure and ranking kids and all signaling and accumulating kids that are not performing just not delivering on average I want to have two things first of all that career saver to me working career we have a member organization in Korea and I think is the only country where we are really trying to create a cultural shift for children to play so it's not only about having extra curricular activities or more sports they need children from their small need time to play and what we're seeing in Korea are children that because the parents are so ambitious for their children so they have a full day of activities where they have to learn they come home from school at 3:00 then they do their piano lessons then they do their English lessons then they do that the tutor comes in to help them with their homework this is how many Korean children live and then makes them very unhappy so I actually think the whole discussion where the high-performing system stresses their children I mean it declares the first and last question should always be are these children happy at all are they capable of living a happy life and I think we that's one of the things we're campaigning for because we have protecting children also from their parents then their society's ambition so that is one of the issues we are talking about in Korea but one thing I want to say in general is that what I'm always missing when I read Pisa is – and I think I had a clear on the standing of that mouth since I've been with Save the Children is that it doesn't show the differences within the country because what we're seeing in many of the OECD countries will probably be that you have children in one area that are performing very well of being very happy but then you have other areas where that is not the case where children are leaving school too early where girls are becoming pregnant where they are not actually doing the education system in a way that is satisfactory and I think that would be very interesting to see that and that is because we always have the Lim's lens that we want to reach the most deprived children in any country the children who are left behind in any country being the UK Denmark wherever and that's where you really start to see that children look very very different lives within any OECD country but but we have the information beware that is not here in the databases you can get your anti right and you're right you're right because it depends on the countries the way they applied the PISA whether they get the original differences and the community together but we have what I think you see a very very clear pattern of countries where they have really big areas where they are left behind children that are far from the average and I think that is interesting because we always talk about countries and I do on the sand countries and governments but what we have to see just in Europe for example is that we have big differences in how children live in terms of their poverty they're learning that their well being the big differences within all the European countries I got the and up some edges make a comment because we have the young the young pizza we are developing the inclusive growth initiative X activity of because of that because you have the inequality of income that is leading to inequality of opportunities to access good school good education and then of course in equality of outcomes and and you're right because we just have confirmed that if you are in the OECD it's a boy or girl that live in a family whose parents have not reached secondary education you have 15% chances to reaching high higher high school level compared to 65% of the better of so this is the comprehensive agenda the education is one part but the reality that we are just reproducing the disadvantages of the different communities and this is express as I said in the in the rejection of the of the model that we have hold thank you and that's certainly an issue that we recognize here in the UK where we have quite it can gaps in both attainment and indeed opportunity and between areas like London and other parts of the country particularly in the north and the coastal region so that's certainly an area that we identify with and has been a subject of much debate over recent mums and gentlemen there and then I'll come to you at the front if that's ok thanks sir Chris Waterman I run a loss-making project in Wales caught investors in families and I was delighted to read chapter 9 in your report but don't expect people to flick through their memory sticks what I'm interested in if we go back to the Declaration of the Rights of the Child which is I 95 years old that was talking about the material and spiritual rights of the child spiritual is now less religious but more mental health and what we have in England at the moment apart from a little local difficulty with some of our neighbours is an education system where we're introducing selection which will mean that 75% of the population will fail the proposed national 11-plus do you think that will help wellbeing in England and a question can we come up with a strap line that the media will understand and the public will understand about importance of mental health or a little credit card that gets the message across and it's great that the prince has come out in favor of therapy but we can't expect people to read your telephone book we need something crystal clear sharp and precise about the importance of mental health and Families I know it's a big ask but Pisa as you know you go in billions of words but just three sentences would help everybody thank you yeah I can say for me about mental health no but this is something that we are very engaging in save the children we just did I think the first of its kind mental health survey of the Syrian children and that is because we are very very convinced that the wounds that are invisible will be as hard to mend as any of the other wounds for these children the results of course are devastating when you ask Syrian children living not in Syria anymore some of them actually live in Aleppo still but we ask them how they are feeling and the problems that these children have in part from the bedwetting and the dreams and that they they don't have the drawings that they make the fact that they commit suicide or attempt to commit suicide that the factors of these that are their lives are devastating and I feel that if we don't do anything about this as an international community we will actually create a complete lost generation for these children that have experienced this and of course we have only asked 500 of them but it's enough to give us an idea that the mental health issues for refugee children or children fleeing war and conflict will actually impact not only them but whole communities and perhaps ourselves as well in other forms in the future in a way that we have not foreseen yet so if you have more than 60 million people on the move because they're fleeing war conflict drought climate change all these things half of them are children and many of them have mental health issues we are creating an enormous issue for ourselves so this is something that is extremely important I also saw surveys of university students where their mental issues are changing you talked about Gabriela so I think it is timely and perhaps also too late that the world is waking up to mental health issues for for children young people and I think particularly elders who have been affected by war and conflict the result of not of inaction could be devastating not only for them but for all of us I your first question on tracking visa has always been very clear that it doesn't work that the reality is that is usually reproducing the original advantages that certain keep cast because of course it's just common sense to note that if you belong to it more wealthy family you will have access to all the means or the network for the encouragement of the care that will of course put you in a much better position to be a high achiever and therefore probably you will get higher chances so we accepted in this very demanding school so it is not the question of plain tracking is how do you ensure that the low-income groups are well represented in those very selective schools and places and and if not what we are what we are seeing in the systems that use tracking that there is not enough emphasis in ensuring that we could not just go for self selection according to where the kids are and be just to take them like that but how do you ensure that those that are leaving hind can also have that opportunity that's a very important element and also how to focus on the under low achievers and on those that have problems because it's just as simple as that you have you have systems that focus on those that achieve the high achievers you support the high achievers it's like that's fine they were always well why don't you go to the low achievers and keep them kids that are in vulnerable situations so that's a very important part of the story I have to say that that we use with these telephone territory as you call it I hope that we will get the message through in the sense that it's it's very important to focus on mental health that that the system produce pressures and produce influences that are affecting our key and very worried about girls I think that the more we do in terms of trying to produce policies for gender equality in so many areas we are just shooting ourselves in the foot if we continue reproducing the role models of the social media and the exposure of these girls to patterns that are just completely unhealthy and and and and I have to say that there is not a question of schools is the question of everybody we have also documented that and that's the point of this of this contribution that we do we are just documenting and we're happy that all of you go out and use it to push the message across because the reality is that we have also documented that girls have less self-confidence why why should they have less self-confidence even we have a beautiful book I didn't bring it but we should have brought about it because it was the ATP of gender equality there is also results from gender from Pisa dealing with gender and how girls fare and the fact is that even for high achievers girls the top achiever girls you ask them are you good at school and they say 30% yes convert to 60% of boys you go with them said why don't they choose a stem we're always worried about stem and of course all the IT and digital basically they don't choose it why because teachers are not trained to be encouraging for girls to go for boys kind of discipline and they are not great teachers are not training these biases that we all have why don't we just go for example to eliminate gender stereotypes and textbooks always a beautiful dancer and a very strong worker which is a value and so these kind of things and so these all impact your the way you build your own self-confidence and these have this possibility of leaving you with very very important mental health problems that is now impacting the health services in this country so let's just go out and transmit this message as as loud as we can thank you I'm going to take one more from the front air Aeneid that's okay I'll burn Thomas I will put it first so it's been encouraging to hear you make the link between teachings what they need to deliver against this range of issues my question is that one thing that strikes me hearing all of it you're saying is the privacy of the assessment systems in governing or Edmonton classrooms so in environments where governments are cutting funding for schools how are you going to allow for the teachers in schools to alleviate those pressures unless you do something about the assessment practices about the forms their settlement takes about the values that correspond with that kind of assessment how people perceive of themselves in their futures in relation to what is often a narrower band of competences well this is this is a very old debate in terms of systems that are completely biased – towards the exams and assessing performance through exams I don't find any good replacement for that but you're right that you need to keep a balance in terms of how you assess performance for kids but even even if you are and to put of course exams as a mean to an end because then sometimes become the end in itself and so the rankings and there is also there but but I have to say that there are even very interesting tricks on how you do exams on how you prepare kids for exam if kids feel and it is also proven in this report if you feel that they are well accompany to prepare the exams they do better it's not a question of whether you have exams or not it's a question of how you accompany it and prepare them to confront with with the assessment and an even very interesting trick because the question is how you the the whole message is how you build the self-confidence of Kier's to manage their own learning process that's the whole message how do you build it and and and if you are going to do an exam that starts with an impossible question the most difficult question you find and then the kids get blocked because of the way you structure the exam you look you lose that possibility and so the trick to do exam and start with eg questions the build the self-confidence of Kings managing the test no because there is no terrible horror than when you're going to exam and you see the first question and you don't know the answer but how do you prepare these kind of of elements but you are right there are things that are not going to be measured by exam how do you address bullying how do you talk to keep to talk about bullying how do you read wrestling how do you get into the bullying kids to get them to we train them to it's a whole set of issues that will help probably allow kids to be happier but of course you need you need to test them you need to see how they work and how they can advance in their progression and they're in their own learning processes but if they how you do it not the what or if you do it or not okay I think we've got one very very quick question in that okay before we break the coffee we can see people getting a bit edgy Thanks don't hold anybody back from their coffee but it's going to be a very short question really to everybody here but to the great speakers and sue Baker I run time to change which is England's anti-stigma campaign about the stigma of mental health and we've shifted about four million people's attitudes over the last ten years children young people's attitudes and the most open to change and they're shifting more rapidly now in recent years and the working age population has also significantly shifted so we're working with over 500 employers half of all secondary schools half of all universities to break the stigma of mental health problems and and we're working with the Royals as well here is they were doing great work too so there's lots of us working in the education sectors in the employment sectors and with the general population as we know three children in every classroom has a mental health problem and all need support for mental health and well-being why aren't all schools and all universities signed up to breaking the stigma and promoting mental health and well-being and know young minds has a big campaign at the moment to get a petition to get mental health and well-being on the curriculum we work with 20 other countries across the world with an anti stigma alliance and I'll wrap up now they do say of all those countries that's 20 of them including the great campaign that we support in Denmark is it very very difficult to get mental health and well-being on the school curriculum yet physical health has been on there since the days of Education what can we ask the OECD and others to do help us get mental health and well-being on the school curriculum across the globe I'm just asking what ideas there might be I think that that one Mario is gonna answer it but the fact is that you do touch upon the most important element that is systematizing it is not recognized as something we can deal with it immediately puts the person that faces those problems in a situation of rejection in a situation of stigma and a situation of victimizing itself so it's very difficult to recognize that this happens for families it's better to hide it because don't know but nobody wants to have the crazy child or so it's very important that we talk about it it's very important that we say it it happens it is not that the kids have a problem the society has a problem that we need to deal with it we to change all these biases so did the stereotype all these all these elements that are producing these unhealthy outcomes but first and foremost we need to see it as a problem that is not inherent in the person it's something that is societal and that needs to be addressed by the whole society and that's what we're doing today we're calling a spade a spade and we're saying let's just address these issues because they exist and they creating a lot of trouble so I commend your work and I think that we should just keep on talking about it I just want to close by saying that in in the in the piece I exercise and I still remember I oversee the work in education at the senior management level in the OECD but I also presented the PISA report in 2000 in Mexico because I was ahead of the UCD center and I have to say that the PISA test has also evolved a lot you remember it was the skills to get a good job and it was very cognitive very you know and we were following this trend in which IQ was praised all the time the highest IQ the more praise you received and the better you are now we're moving into a more comprehensive more human definition of what is required for people to be happy and to build healthier societies and we have managed and the next edition of the pizza will deal with global competency and this is very important because we need to recognize our own biases the global competency is about understanding others is about looking by the lens of others and the perspective of others understanding other perspectives the very same problems that we are confronting is about tolerance it's about social emotional and it's about a more comprehensive human development is more complicated and I know there are people that stick to their guns and say cognitive I don't care less teach math less stitch it is not it's not it's not divorced it needs to get together you learn better when you have these other skills that are well developed the weight into the next edition that will deal with the global competitive and Mario's also leading the work and it would really help us because the agenda that we are developing at the OECD – for a new narrative of growth that is not only material will being that is not only GDP per capita but that is multi-dimensional and that it provides with more healthy societies is being underpinned by this work in education that actually said at the beginning education is really the basis of all this progress and I think the conversation is changing I think with the help of people like you and and us we've never asked 500 Syrian children how they are mentally affected by war I don't think anyone has but we have now and that's because we want to put a light on exactly that problem and you could say well obviously they've been in a war they've been in a net for their schools and their hospitals have been bombed they will be affected but what we need to know is how and how does it affect them and talk about it and be their voice you're doing the same and I think just now finishing this session you are doing the same now you are asking much broader questions that I've ever seen for children's well-being and this is a base of evolution that can change the conversation about children put the light on bullying as soon as you have put the light on bullying and I saw that in the papers also because before I came and you showed us today that means that the rest of us can now take over and ask the questions of governments of schools teachers and parents are you looking into that and solving them one of the things that say the children do in many many countries there is to talk about bullying mental well-being and we can continue to do that to broaden the conversation have the data ready which we have now and that will only be improved over the year over the years this is going to change the conversation and it will be very very good for our children thank you thank you very very much for that and mental health and the profile that it has is definitely something we'll pick up in our panel discussion but in the mean time thank you both of you so much of using Lyman for joining us today but we'll take a quick copy break now and if you could aim to reconvene here in about ten minutes so by 20 past 11:00 that would give us plenty of time for our panel discussion thank you thank you everyone for coming back to the this morning's panel discussion so there will be four panel members as soon as Mario the OECD reports author comes back from doing a lot of glamorous press conference I understand but we'll kick off with our three panelists that we have with us now so from left to right we have Nick Hytner Smith who's the chief executive of family links then we have Sarah Brennan the chief executive of young minds and Professor Leon Feinstein who's a director of evidence at the office for the Children's Commissioner now I'll open questions up to the floor in just a moment but first what I'd like to do is take a bit of shared privilege and pick up on some of the debate and discussion we heard this morning and one of the things that we're really interested in epi as you know is the interface between education and young people's mental health and how trends in young people's well-being in mental health are evolving and changing over time we have some interesting findings this morning on the use of the internet for example and particularly high use amongst young people in the UK high levels of anxiety among young people in the UK and again quite a significant gender gap between boys and girls and so my first question is what you think today's report tells us specifically about the effects of modern life both at home at school and young people's well-being so if we start with Leon yeah well thank you that's a very big question I really want to welcome the report and I think the the way in which Gabriela presented it as a challenge to an old-style narrow economics of human capital which is driven our education system for a very long time is very very welcome and we're all seeing the political consequences of an industrial strategy and education which has been driven by very narrow ideas about what humans are and how they develop which has really come out of economics which negates the complexity of the human being I think there's a difficulty taking this report and trying to translate it to a study of the whole of mental health and well-being and the lives of children I think this report is about the educational component of well-being and I think the name that's not being mentioned that's quite important in this discussion is Richard Laird who has been arguing for a long time that we need to not just think about GDP as what we're trying to maximize when we think about policy but we need to think about well-being and I just really want to emphasize the fact that well-being is a lot of very different things and it means lots of different things to different people and it can't be reduced to a single dimension people would have heard me say this before of non-cognitive skills which is one dimension we have a dimension of cognitive skills we have a now that I mentioned and non-cognitive skills that's just repeating the same error of industrializing notions of human behavior and then trying to change policy on the basis of still inadequate science in my view I think what's important about this report is it helps us understand the complexity of what we think about when we think about children's motivations in school and so it's really important that we understand some of the big messages in terms of national average descriptive statistics that the UK has an issue around bullying UK has an issue around anxiety the UK has a gender difference in mental health which every country seems to have and that goes through a substantive descriptive questions what what I think really matters is when we think about how to apply this to children's lives we recognize the complexity of what mental health and well-being are there are lots of very different issues within that sort of thing so I won't say more than that and I haven't really answered your question so in terms of the context I think it's really important that we don't make the Miss take of repeating what we've done on cognitive skills with non cognitive skills thinking there's one way of measuring it we've just got to maximize that thing thank you and Sarah the tick I'm particularly interested in your view on things like the impact of bullying and use of the engine and how we understand well-being I think first of all we just in response around this research I think it's very complimentary to lots of the things that we're doing around developing better understanding about children's mental health and well-being and the impact of life in terms of developing good emotional resilience and how we enable young people to have well-being when they're leaving school I'm interested I was saying in the break that some of the research in fact by professor Laird has shown that well-being on leaving school is a much better indicator about long-term life outcomes for young people and adults than educational attainment and I'm fair the research is not here because I'd be very interested to know that was going to be my question earlier and as much as we are seeing the much increased rates of mental illness amongst young people there is a debate out about whether actually it's increased numbers or what we're seeing is a result of a reduced amount of early intervention services a reduce amount of help that's out there at the right time and also certainly childhood has changed and partly to do with what's expected in school when young minds asked a couple of years ago young people about what would their concerns what their top concerns about life what were they worried about school stress absolute is one the top five fear of unemployment from young people as young as 11 was on their mind with one of their top concerns alongside bullying and no surprises there and alongside all the sorts of things connected to the internet around one ography access to pornography the impact that had on young people that identity what they thought they should be looking like about self-image around thighs how pretty they are how how muscly they are as a young man and I think we've been very slow as adults to catch up with that there's lots of really good things as we know as well around the internet around finding help when there's nothing else out there one of the things that I really would like us to focus attention on is exactly what this reporters has brought up around what what are young people's lives like in school and what happens to them when they're in school because I agree about the narrow definition about getting attainment and that's a very poor indicate about how they're going to do and one of the things that we've done at young minds is as of nation earlier campaign around well-being in schools but this has to be as important as attainment because it will being is so a critical factor in terms of positive life outcomes and we know that mental illness is the biggest cause of loss of production employment and so is the biggest cost to employers as well the only way we're going to shift that so kind of action going to an economic argument actually is to look at children and young people's well-being and mental health and how we helped them build resilience you can learn some of these gables around how to look after yourself around how you look at the assets you have around you how you use those positively so I think for us the challenge is what is the role of teachers it has to be more than rote learning and exam preparation has to be about how are these children doing how what's their life like in school and that means you've actually got to look at teachers too because if their well-being is so stressed that they can't actually think about even in terms of this research their teaching style about what's going on in terms of the educational development of the children in front of them actually we can't shift at all so I must also take a plug here please do check out the young minds website sign up so that they'll rise up campaign and the letter to the Prime Minister saying we've got a shift based balance it can't remain it's not good for us ever as a healthy nation it costs us both in terms of health but it costs us in terms of the human cost but also in terms of our economic costs in terms of productivity thank you sir and make your reflections on modern life and well-being yeah absolutely I think I would echo many of the points that have been raised particularly around the broadening of the narrative around what we see is a value in the purpose of education today and I think a report of this depth and this quality making that point can only be good and similar to gab reality the extent to which children's voice really comes through in this report one of the biggest challenges for me and for all of our us here in the room I think is really to do with Leon's points about conceptual clarity when we talk about well-being and mental health and resilience and grit and growth mindsets we can get quite caught up in sort of maelstrom of terminology that to some extent is used interchangeably and I think that's one of the key things that we could do out of this period of time is is to get some real clarity around when do we use the term emotional health when do we use the term mental health when do we talk about resilience because they are all conceptually I think very very different and it speaks into this point that Leon made about measurement where actually if we're going to try and have a small handful of measures that are looking at these issues we need to be very clear about what what are these sort of the concepts that underpin them I think when I looked at this report for me and based on the work that we do at family links that the teachers with whom we work would say that there is a lot here that read backs up what they experienced on a day to day basis they are seeing the impacts of the internet come through the door every morning when teachers are trying to support young people to figure out the the relational struggles and the the challenges from social media from the night before we know that online bullying is is something that is a huge challenge for school teachers to manage given most of happens outside of the school day and the the stats today on girls and body image and girls are eating I found really distressing and I think there's a lot that is being done there are some great examples of school projects and and curriculum resources where teachers have been able to engage with the politicization of the female body in in media and in advertising in particular and bring that to life for children in a way that's hugely empowering the girls and I think I think the final point really is is around teacher training when we work with teachers when we work with university providers who train teachers the current the content in most of those courses that looks at child well-being or looks at psychology or human development is so so small at the moment and I think we're sending armies of passionate teachers out into the classroom each year really poorly equipped to understand some of those those complexities about which we're speaking so if there's a recommendation up today that I'm really passionate we see through it around teacher training okay Leon you look like you wants to come back please bring out one other one other point which I think is really important from this work and it came up a bit this morning but is really the challenge for this country is about high-stakes testing in schools and high stakes accountability which this is this report is a very strong challenge to and I say that recognizing we're in we're in a local government elections burden I think a political issue but this applies to all political parties over the last thirty years we've had a model of education which has been about high-stakes testing and in my view a failure to understand the difference between the need to have accountability for our education system but the Secretary of State for Education is accountable for the success of our education system schools are accountable for their performance teachers are accountable for their performance but to deal with that we've tested every child repeatedly in in high-stakes ways that actually turned them off learning and and it is interesting to hear it you know the findings about fifteen year olds in education but I think part of the problem for the British education system is the generations that have gone through the school system that are disengaged from education and therefore the parents can't help their children through the education system that we just repeat these cycles and a narrow model of high-stakes testing which takes a proportion of children says they are successes said to the rest of the population you're not good at education you don't deserve the best education these people are turned off education you then see the result in the next generation so it's a very poor model in an industrial strategy sense about how to support skills I think this report is really really clear on that and I think that's a very important challenge to the discussion we're about to have about our education yeah completely agree about the report today raising those kinds of questions about the balance between high state testing and anxiety and well-being and I could probably spend the rest of the time asking you lots of questions about it but we ought to bring in some of the audience members so you could let me know if you have any questions and then once you have the mic some of your name and where you're from are there any okay oh we've got one there the back stand please I was like indiscretion hello I'm Michael Clements again from the brilliant Club which works to widen access to highly selective universities oh I want to slightly provoke you with a question that asks you either to double down or to explore other ways or other levers in the system beyond teacher training or asking teachers to do more I appreciate that teachers build relationships with students and the way they manage and the evidence from the report suggests that the way they manage their class and their instruction and have a direct impact on how students feel about their learning the stress levels they feel but I wonder what other levers exist that can improve student well-being beyond saying teachers need to do stuff differently or teachers me to do stuff more who would like to go first Nick you started talking about tutor training yeah absolutely I think um I actually take your point we can't put all of the pressure on on schools schools are being increasingly asked to take on most of the early intervention work that's going on in the country mental health support in the absence of cams I'm very conscious of the issue of putting more and more on on schools I would challenge back and say this isn't something teachers really have a voice about in many ways these are the issues that are confronting them on a daily basis in their classroom so um there's something about supporting them to do that work more effectively and even beyond this idea this sort of a zero-sum game in education that if we're not teaching if we want to teach about emotional health and well-being and we can therefore teach maths I don't accept that as a seesaw I think it's much more complex than that and there are ways to do both does your real question I think the what comes up in this report about the role of parents and how we can support families and parents to do much more around that in supporting children's well-being I think is something that policy is a parenting and family support charity that's where we would ask for a lot more support and investment to make that happen not just for parents who maybe have more complex needs and families with higher levels of need but actually for for all families of all children to be able to have access to that support so I think um it's building on from what next said we do see countries like Finland and Switzerland who perform well on the academic Pisa exams and but yet still have high levels of life satisfaction low levels of anxiety what do you think it is that they're getting right and what can we do in the UK well I was going to say and I think it links in the visit one actually equals the other in what the research shows and and it shows comprehensively is that actually if you have good well-being if you have higher satisfaction among students actually that helps your attainment so I don't think as Nick said this and either all and I think what what we're looking at is a fundamental shift in our definition of Education and our and how we think about the job of school and so that we're not looking at and straightforward exam equals success because clearly clearly it doesn't and we know that from the numbers of privileged young people who have got seriously high mental health problems which high levels anxiety eating disorders and and are needing to have long-term care so looking at other countries I think that there is clearly things that we can learn and I makes me feel ignorant that I don't know well enough how they might there might be lessons that we can learn and translate to this country clearly though what we're looking at is schools as part of a local community and a culture and within that school we we all know about the whole schools approach and so what we're not just talk about what goes on in their classroom we're talking about what happens to children within that whole school what their experiences what happens at lunchtime play times and so I also think we have to look at how can we take away from the what's being required teaching the language actually isn't helping anyone except maybe politicians to say we can tick that box so it is about it is about taking some of the unnecessary things away so we can actually balance up what happens is Falls much in a much more healthy way now that any federal must have I've heard for a while that the Department of Education make the argument that because it incentivizes cognitive success all exam performance and because well-being is positively associated with exam success it is incentivizing well-being and I think I think we'll know we've succeeded on this debate when then trying to argue that anymore because it's not true there is a correlation as this report draws out on average between measures of well-being and school achievement but there are a lot of off diagonals but hard to find people are probably some in this room I'm very well in schools don't have particularly good mental health and vice versa the correlation tells you about a general tendency if you talk to teachers in in the most deprived areas they're doing a lot of work on mental health they're doing work on well-being a mental health report they can get the kids to the point of learning where they're going to start to see progress in their their exam performance and that's just not incentivized they don't get enough incentive for that sort of work but I think I think there's a real challenge to think about it's not it's not that we should lay out a whole extra set of responsibilities at schools I think people are right this is a wider social challenge the issue for schools is first do no wrong I think that's always for me actually the lesson of social policy that government should be asking it's not how do we do things that are going to make things better by the brilliance of our policy is first how do we stop the things that are doing the damage and that's the issue about high-stakes testing and we know about performance anxiety but you know there's very good evidence from psychology about how putting high-stakes putting pressure on undermines the confidence of certain people in their process of learning so we know it does damage so while we do thank you any other questions we've got about five minutes before we need to make up if oh okay I'll actually I'll go to locust and then we'll take you very quickly if that's okay after sleep okay and I was interested in only one we're looking at the figures about and the fact about sort of links between high-performing schools and schools where those high well being and so on and and what that actually meant in terms of whether this because we know that as families young people from disadvantaged backgrounds are probably likely to have lower well-being and also to perform less highly so do we is your is what's your analysis of that of those of those and whether whether there's causality there and whether or not yeah before you answer that can we just take this question very quickly at the front here Sam that's okay so did you have a gentleman here my question relates to Terrell two points that you might be particularly a man the sort of the effect that the primacy of measurements related to the exams have an understanding way into education so we talked about alternatives alternative measures indicators but what do you think the best available indicators or measures are that relate to mental health well-being in schools and in children is it how can we use liyan do you want to come back from that question first and then address some of the points that lower grade thank you just just quickly on the causality great point these are descriptive data there's no piloting of impact this data don't tell you anything about cause and and it causes are complex as I was trying to indicate before when we're thinking about human behavior but what's important is the focus on motivation I think and thinking of motivation as a complex phenomenon that's something that this report really highlights I've been struck recently hearing that there's a lot of debates about meritocracy and the idea that some kids are ambitious and sub kids aren't and it's basically genetic you know what this report shines a light on is the complexity of motivation and the role that teachers and families and communities have in influencing motivation I think that that's that's a really important thing but I won't I don't think we know about the causal directions from this report in terms of the measurement I don't really have an answer I would just say what I'm what I'm what I'm enjoying and what I'm seeing in the way this is going as schools are doing a lot more work thinking about what they want to measure that is important to them in this territory and it's not about creating a new set of national metrics by which teachers and schools should then be held accountable it's a really difficult argument because without that how do we make sure well-being is at the table but we're not going to enhance well-being by creating a new set of high performance metrics I think diversity of measurement what the education damit foundation is doing around Korea and others around creating pools for schools to measure things and learn about what's working I think is really important areas and just picking up on the causal point we go back some long back a long time when I was studying sociology and social policy at university it was really clear then being at work our work profile was important was available was was different and I wondered and at that point yes there were lots of young people who weren't interested in school and their parents weren't interesting those children doing well at school because it seemed irrelevant they was but they was employment for them without needing qualifications they our work profile employment profile is changing rapidly we're now looking at robots doing you know doing things in our home and the need for education for all of our workforce is much greater that we have we have a pressure coming down from government because they know they need to have a much more highly skilled workforce and yet we have still got a whole alienated group of children and families from education who filled out the education as being relevant for them and I think one of the things we have never looked at and never addressed is how do we make this thing a relevant thing and sadly the what they've done by increasing the pressure around exams is just alienate children young people even further and so we've done a very strange contradictory activity and yes so that I think the causality possibly is by chance rather than necessarily a proven link but I think our policy has just and our implementation of that has made it consistently worse and consistently more marked and coming back to all nations I think one of the things that again we're calling for is looking at the role of Ofsted because one of the issues for teachers and schools has been the their experience of being measured and coming back to pressure on teachers the pressure that is placed on the school and on teachers individually as well and as much as they have well-being as a section within what they should be looking at is called reality is and indeed the EPI report shows a very small proportion of of inspections even consider it and when they do consider it it's often impulsing and they have no particular shared notion about what they mean by looking at well-being so as much as it is contentious we have to develop a shared understanding or a shared definition of what is this thing that we're talking about coming back to Nick's point I think it's absolutely right but we do also need to educate often and have a government that work the same yes we want this measured to be an outstanding school you have to be outstanding at well-being because actually you can't have one without the other and we've got a bit of a road to go for that but it is one of the things that we are aiming to achieve thank you and they can now you have to duck off in a couple of minutes so yeah I would just really on the measurement point from time to time we see those articles around the value potentially of having wellbeing lead tables for schools and I just really want to speak quite quite powerfully against any such such notion really for all the reasons we've we've outlined but that said when we have seen schools who are using data on children's well-being on their social emotional skills and their competencies in a formative way to help design curriculum to help create opportunities within the learning environment to enable children to learn and practice those skills that's when I think the role of data can really come into its own so absolutely the work of the EF and they're the spectrum of measures a few hundred of them is over right max yet we also have the public health the rapport with Anna Freud Center last year that listed a great number of measures many of which are publicly accessible to schools the worker rights to succeed in Blackpool using the mental toughness awful name good measure scale has got some really fascinating data about how teachers can use that data to inform improve curriculum and improve teaching and and just really finally to really speak in support of Leon's point around motivation I think there are some really good there's some great psychology and some great measurements out there that look at the components of good motivation and I think they actually speak to a lot of what's in this report they talk about the importance of relatedness in schools being a key predictor of motivation about a sense of competence and also about a sense of autonomy in learning and I think those principles are ones that come out in the report maybe under a slightly different name but actually speak to a lot of the challenges that we we see in schools around engaging dickey children from the most disadvantaged background in changing that intergenerational cycle that we're describing thank you very much to all our panel members I think we'll have to wrap up now because we have just hit 12 o'clock and thank you all for coming and for staying on for the panel discussion thank you again to our colleagues at the JP Morgan foundation for hosting us in such a beautiful venue and please do keep up with the work that the Education Policy Institute is doing and the PISA report was described earlier as a telephone book we will be going through that telephone book over the course of the year and picking out some of the key implications and findings for the UK much to colleagues at the DfE DAPs frustration earlier and but we will be doing that so please do keep keep in touch with the work that we're doing and thank you again I don't have the OECD are still here or being caught up with press but once again we are incredibly pleased to have partnered with them again on this important report today so thank you very much again all of you you [Applause]

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